Nicholas DiFonzo

Associate Professor of Psychology


585.594.6468
difonzo_nicholas@roberts.edu

MEMBERSHIPS IN PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
American Psychological Society
Society for Personality and Social Psychologists
Christian Association for Psychological Studies
University Faculty for Life
Society for Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology

SPECIAL HONORS
2015 Group and Organization Management Best Micro Paper of 2014 award was given to the paper: Bordia, P., Kiazad, K., Restubog, S. L. D., DiFonzo, N., Stenson, N., & Tang, R. L. (2014). Rumor as Revenge in the Workplace Group & Organization Management, 39, 363-388. doi:10.1177/1059601114540750

2007 Gold Medal-2006 ForeWord Book of the Year Award in the psychology category was given to the book: DiFonzo, N., & Bordia, P. (2007). Rumor psychology: Social & organizational approaches. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association

1994 1994 Marianthi Georgoudi Award, Department of Psychology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA. The Award is conferred upon one dissertation author each year for philosophical and theoretical contributions to the field of Psychology.

1990 "With Distinction" Award, Masters of Arts in Counseling, Rider College, Lawrenceville, NJ. (Similar to magna cum laude)

PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES
2021-2022 Guest C0-Editor for Special Issue of Journal of Psychology and Christianity on “Emic Christian Measurement”
2020-present Consulting Editor for Journal of Psychology and Christianity
2009-present Consulting Editor for Computers in Human Behavior
2008-present Consulting Editor for Social Influence
2000-2008 Consulting Editor for The Journal of Social Psychology
2003-present Founder and administrator of https://groups.google.com/d/forum/rumor-gossip-research (an Internet discussion group of psychologists and sociologists interested in rumor and gossip research)

SCHOLARLY BOOKS
DiFonzo, N., & Bordia, P. (2009). 심리학 소문: 사회 & 조직적 접근 [Korean Translation hardcover of Rumor psychology: Social & organizational approaches]. Seoul: EntersKorea.

DiFonzo, N., & Bordia, P. (2007). Rumor psychology: Social & organizational approaches. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

PEER REVIEWED PUBLICATIONS
DiFonzo, N., (2020). Evil rumors. Christianity Around the World, 14, 47-52.

DiFonzo, N., (2020). Rumor and communication. In Patricia Moy (Ed.). Communication. Oxford Bibliographies. Oxford: Oxford University Press. DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199756841-0246.

DiFonzo, N. (2019). A Christian psychology of rumor. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 38(1), 3-21.

DiFonzo, N. (2019). Conspiracy Rumor Psychology. In Joseph E. Uscinski (Ed.) Conspiracy Theories and the People Who Believe Them, (pp. 257-268). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

DiFonzo, N., Alongi, A., & Wiele, P. (2018). Apology, Restitution, and Forgiveness after Psychological Contract Breach. Journal of Business Ethics. DOI 10.1007/s10551-018-3984-1

DiFonzo, N., Beckstead, J., Stupak, N., & Walders, K. (2016). Validity judgments of rumors heard multiple times: The shape of the truth effect. Social Influence. 11(1), 22-39. DOI: 10.1080/15534510.2015.1137224

DiFonzo, N., Suls, J., Beckstead, J., Bourgeois, M. J., Homan, C., Brougher, S., Younge, A. J., & Terpstra-Schwab, N. (2014). Network Structure Moderates Intergroup Differentiation of Stereotyped Rumors. Social Cognition, 32(5), 409-448. DOI: 10.1080/15534510.2015.1137224

Bordia, P., Kiazad, K., Restubog, S. L. D., DiFonzo, N., Stenson, N., & Tang, R. L. (2014). Rumor as Revenge in the Workplace Group & Organization Management, 39, 363-388. DOI:10.1177/1059601114540750 [Won Group & Organization Management Best Micro Paper of 2014 Award]

Brooks, B., DiFonzo, N, & Ross, D. (2013). The GBN-Dialogue Model of Outgroup-Negative Rumor Transmission: Group Membership, Belief, and Novelty. Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences, 17(2), 269-293.

DiFonzo, N., Bourgeois, M. J., Suls, J. M., Homan, C., Stupak, N., Brooks, B., Ross, D. S., & Bordia, P. (2013). Rumor Clustering, Consensus, and Polarization: Dynamic Social Impact and Self-Organization of Hearsay. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49(3), 378-399. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2012.12.010

Bordia, P., & DiFonzo, N. (2013). Rumors During Organizational Change: A Motivational Analysis. In The Psychology of Organisational Change. [pp. 232-252]. Cambridge University Press.

DiFonzo, N., Robinson, N., Suls, J., & Rini, C. (2012). Rumors about cancer: Content, sources, coping, transmission, and belief. Journal of Health Communication: International Perspectives, 17(9), 1099-1115. DOI:10.1080/10810730.2012.665417

Fine, G. A., & DiFonzo, N. (2011, Summer). Uncertain knowledge. Contexts, 10(3). 16-21.

DiFonzo, N. (2010). Ferretting facts or fashioning fallacies? Factors in rumor accuracy. Social and Personality Compass.4(11), 1124-1137, DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-9004.2010.00321.x

Stupak, N., DiFonzo, N., Younge, A. J., & Homan, C. (2010). SOCIALSENSE: Graphical user interface design considerations for social network experiment software. Computers in Human Behavior, 26, 365-370. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2009.11.007.

DiFonzo, N. (2010). Rumor. In Irving B. Weiner & Edward Craighead (Eds.). Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology. (4th Ed.).

DiFonzo, N. (2010). Propaganda. In Irving B. Weiner & Edward Craighead (Eds.). Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology. (4th Ed.).

DiFonzo, N. (2009). Rumor. Cambridge Dictionary of Psychology. London: Sage.

DiFonzo, N. (2008). Rumors. In William A. Darity, Jr., Editor-in-chief. International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences (Vol. 7, 2nd ed., pp. 295-298). Detroit, MI: Macmillan Reference USA (Thomson Gale).

DiFonzo, N., & Bordia, P. (2007). Rumor Transmission. In R. F. Baumeister & K., D. Vohs (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Social Psychology. [pp. 771-773]. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

DiFonzo, N., & Bordia, P. (2007). Rumors influence: Toward a dynamic social impact theory of rumor. In A. R. Pratkanis (Ed.), The Science of Social Influence: Advances and Future Progress. [pp.271-296]. Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press.

DiFonzo, N., & Bordia, P. (2007). Rumor, gossip, and urban legends. Diogènes 213, 54(1). 19-35.

DiFonzo, N., & Bordia, P. (2006). Rumeurs, ragots et legends urbaines. [Rumor, gossip, and urban legends]. Diogène, 213 (Janvier-Mars). 23-45.

DiFonzo, N. & Bordia, P. (2006). Rumor in organizational contexts. In D. A. Hantula (Ed.), Advances in psychology: A tribute to Ralph L. Rosnow. (pp. 249-274). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Bordia, P., Jones, E., Gallois, C., Callan, V., & DiFonzo, N. (2006). Management are aliens! Rumors and stress during organizational change. Group & Organization Management, 31(5), 601-621.

Bordia, P., & DiFonzo, N. (2005). Psychological motivations in rumor spread. In G.A. Fine, V. Campion-Vincent, & C. Heath (Eds.), (pp. 87-101), Rumor mills: The social impact of rumor and legend. New York: Aldine.

Bordia, P., DiFonzo, N., Haines, R., & Chaseling, L. (2005). Rumor denials as persuasive messages: Effects of personal relevance, source, and message characteristics. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 35(6), 1301-1331.

Bordia, P., Hunt, L., Paulsen, N., Tourish, D., & DiFonzo, N. (2004). Communication and uncertainty during organizational change: Is it all about control? European Journal of Work & Organizational Psychology, 13(3), 345-365.

Bordia, P., & DiFonzo, N. (2004). Problem solving in social interactions on the Internet: Rumor as social cognition. Social Psychology Quarterly, 67(1), 33-49.

DiFonzo, N. & Bordia, P. (2002). Corporate rumor activity, belief, and accuracy. Public Relations Review, 150, 1-19.

DiFonzo, N. & Bordia, P. (2002). Rumor and stable-cause attribution in prediction and behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 88, 785-800.

Bordia, P., & DiFonzo, N. (2002). When social psychology became less social: Prasad and the history of rumor research. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 5, 49-61.

DiFonzo, N. & Bordia, P. (2000). How top PR professionals handle hearsay: Corporate rumors, their effects, and strategies to manage them. Public Relations Review, 26(2), 173-190.

Costenbader, V., Rohrer, A.M., & DiFonzo, N. (2000). Kindergarten screening: A survey of current practice. Psychology in the Schools,37(4), 323-332.

Bordia, P., DiFonzo, N., & Schultz, C. A. (2000). Source characteristics in denying rumors of organizational closure: Honesty is the best policy. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 11, 2301-2309.

Bordia, P., DiFonzo, N., & Chang, A. (1999). Rumor as group problem solving: Development patterns in informal computer mediated groups. Small Group Research, 30(1), 8-28.

DiFonzo, N., & Bordia, P. (1998). A tale of two corporations: Managing uncertainty during organizational change. Human Resource Management, 37(3&4), 295-303.

DiFonzo, N., & Bordia, P. (1998). How Top PR Professionals Handle Hot Air: Types of Corporate Rumors, their Effects, and Strategies to Manage them. Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations.

DiFonzo, N., Hantula, D. A., & Bordia, P. (1998). Microworlds for experimental research: Having your (control & collection) cake, and realism too. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 30(2), 278-286.

Bordia, P., DiFonzo, N., & Travers, V. (1998). Denying rumors of organizational change: A higher source is not always better. Communications Research Reports, 15(2). 189-198.

DiFonzo, N., Hantula, D. A., & Bordia, P. (1997). Microworlds for a dynamic I/O Psychology in the 21st century. The Industrial-Organizational Psychologist, 35(2), 19-25.

DiFonzo, N., & Bordia, P. (1997/2005). Rumor and prediction: Making sense (but losing dollars) in the stock market. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 71(3), 329-353. Reprinted 2005 in International Library of Critical Writings in Economics, 187, 248-272.

DiFonzo, N., Bordia, P., & Rosnow, R. L. (1994). Reining in Rumors. Organizational Dynamics, 23(1), 47-62.

POPULAR PRESS BOOKS
DiFonzo, N. (2009). The Watercooler Effect: The Indispensible Guide to Understanding and Harnessing the Power of Rumor. New York: Avery (Penguin). [paperback released September, 2009]

DiFonzo, N. (2008). The Watercooler Effect: A Psychologist Explores the Extraordinary Power of Rumors. New York: Avery (Penguin). www.thewatercoolereffect.com (translated into 6 languages: Spanish, Korean, Chinese Simplified, Chinese Traditional, Portuguese, & Japanese)

NON-PEER REVIEWED PUBLICATIONS
DiFonzo, N., & Johnson, E. L. (in press). "SOAK.JOKE.POKE.OAK: Does Scripture create a biblical frame in psychology texts?" Soul & Spirit. e-newsletter for the Society for Christian Psychology division of the American Association of Christian Counselors.

DiFonzo, N. (10 January 2013). Rumor research can douse digital wildfires. Nature 493(135). DOI:10.1038/493135a. http://www.nature.com/news/rumour-research-can-douse-digital-wildfires-1.12167

DiFonzo, N. (2009, December 12). When gossip is good. The Wall Street Journal.

DiFonzo, N. (November, 2011). Changing Hearts, Saving Lives. First Things.

DiFonzo, N. (April 21, 2011). The echo-chamber effect. The New York Times.

DiFonzo, N. (Sept. 14, 2008). Rumor has it: Why we believe lies in elections, even when we know the truth. New York Post.

Bordia, P., & DiFonzo, N. (March 24, 2002). Hot stuff: The risky allure of rumour. The Sunday Age.

DiFonzo, N., & Bordia, P. (January/February 1999). Psst. — What do you know about handling the rumor mill? Journal of Employee Communication Management, pp. 14-19.

TECHNICAL REPORTS
Bordia, P., & DiFonzo, N. (2004). Rumor spread, belief, accuracy and management: A literature review. [A technical report prepared for the Defence Science & Technology Organisation, Department of Defence, Australia].

DiFonzo, N., & Toth, E. (2001). Annotated Bibliography of Recent and Significant Psychological Research of Import to Public Relations Practitioners. Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations.

Rodenhiser, R., & DiFonzo, N. (2001). Report to Livingston County Coalition of Churches: Organization Evaluation. Geneseo, NY: Livingston County Coalition of Churches.

CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS
DiFonzo, N. (2017). Framing Unplanned Pregnancy Decision Making within the Theory of Planned Behavior. In Joseph W. Koterski, S.J. (Ed.). Life and Learning XXVI: Proceedings from the 26th University Faculty for Life Annual Conference at Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 2016 [pp. 269-293]. Bronx, NY: University Faculty for Life.

DiFonzo, N. (2012). Toward a more pro-life campus: Insights from Attitude Research. In Joseph W. Koterski, S.J. (Ed.). Life and Learning XXI: Proceedings from the 21th University Faculty for Life Annual Conference at Notre Dame University, South Bend, IN, 2011. Bronx, NY: University Faculty for Life.

DiFonzo, N. (2000). Why We Measure. In J. Felton (Ed.), Proceedings of International Symposium IV: Putting the Yardstick to PR: How do we Measure Effectiveness Globally? Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations.

DiFonzo, N., & Bordia, P. (1999). How top PR professionals handle hot air. In J. Felton (Ed.), Proceedings of International Symposium III: Global Terrorism: How Does Public Relations Prepare? Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations.

PEER-REVIEWED CONFERENCE PRESENTATIONS
Johnson, E. L., Marino, N. & DiFonzo, N. (2021, Aug. 12-14). Occurrences, Attributions, and Worldviews. In C. H. Hackney, E. L. Johnson, & J. Knabb, Taking Worldview (and Culture) in Account in Psychological Science. Symposium presented at the 2021 meeting of the American Psychological Association.

Palanski, M., Barclay, L. J., & DiFonzo, N. (2020, Aug. 7-14). Forgiveness in the workplace: An identity-based perspective. In R. J. Bies, L. Barclay, & T. M. Tripp (organizers), The Management of Identity-Based Conflicts: New Directions in Justice Research. Symposium presented at the 2020 Academy of Management.

DiFonzo, N., & Jones, C. E. (2020, Mar. 13). Worldview Influence in Psychological Measurement: What Is It, How To Recognize It, And How To Account For It. Paper presented at the 2020 Annual Meeting of the Christian Association for Psychological Studies, Atlanta, GA.

DiFonzo, N., & Black, J. S. (2020, Mar. 22). Trustful Waiting and Enemy Loving Responses to Fallen Uncertainty and Relationality: Christian Psychology Soul Care in an Age of Conspiracy Rumors. Paper to be presented Mar. 22, 2020, at the University of Miami Conspiracy Theory Conference, Miami, FL. (conference canceled due to COVID).

DiFonzo, N. & Black, J.S. (2019, Mar. 23). Soul Care for Conspiracy Theorists: A Christian Psychology Approach to Rumor. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Christian Association for Psychological Studies, Dallas, TX.

DiFonzo, N. (2018, Oct. 27). Theological Narratives in Rumor: A Christian Psychology Perspective. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Christian Association of Psychological Studies East Regional Conference, Lancaster, PA

DiFonzo, N. (2018, April 12). A Christian Psychology of Rumor. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Christian Association for Psychological Studies, Norfolk, VA.

DiFonzo, N. (2016, June 11). Framing Unplanned Pregnancy Decision Making within the Theory of Planned Behavior. Paper presented to the 26th University Faculty for Life Annual Conference, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI.

DiFonzo, N. (2015, Oct. 16). Rumor Sense Making in Social Exclusion. Paper presented at the Christian Association of Psychological Studies, East Regional Conference, Eastern University, St. David’s, PA.

DiFonzo, N., Bourgeois, M. J., & Suls, J. M. (2012, Jan. 26). I Heard that Democrats Abuse Drugs and Republicans are Racist. Network Clustering and Intergroup Segregation Effects on Rumor Belief, Polarization, and Self Organization. Paper presented at the Dynamical System and Computational Modeling in Social Psychology Preconference, San Diego, CA.

DiFonzo, N. (2011, June 10). Toward a more pro-life campus. Insights from attitude research. Paper presented at the 21st University Faculty for Life Annual Conference, Notre Dame University, South Bend, IN.

DiFonzo, N., Bourgeois, M. J., & Suls, J. M. (2011, Feb. 9). Network Clustering and Intergroup Segregation Effects on Rumor Belief, Polarization, and Self Organization. Paper presented at the Human Social Culture Behavior (HSCB) Modeling, Focus 2011 Conference (sponsored by Office of the Secretary of Defense), Chantilly, VA.

DiFonzo, N., Bourgeois, M. J., Suls, J. M., Homan, C., Younge, A. J., Schwab, N., Frazee, M., Brougher, S., & Harter, K. (2010). “I heard that Democrats Abuse Drugs and Republicans are Racist” Network Segmentation and Group Segregation Effects on Defensive Rumor Belief Bias and Self Organization. Paper presented at The George Gerbner Conference on Communication, Conflict, and Aggression, May 28-29, Budapest, Hungary.

DiFonzo, N., Robinson, N., Suls, J., & Rini, C. (2010, April 8). Rumors about Cancer: Transmission, Belief and Coping Functions. Poster presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Behavior Medicine, Seattle, WA.

DiFonzo, N., Beckstead, J., Stupak, N., Walders, K., Brooks, B., & Ross, D. (2009). Repeated Hearing Increases Belief in Rumor, Moderated Slightly by Skepticism. Paper presented at the 2009 Annual Conference of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, February 5-7, Tampa, FL.

Brooks, B., DiFonzo, N, & Ross, D. (2008). Dialogue Model of Rumor Transmission. Presented at the 41st Annual Society for Mathematical Psychology Conference, Washington DC, July 28.

DiFonzo, N., Bourgeois, M. J., Homan, C., Suls, J. M., Brooks, B. P., Ross, D. S., Bordia, P., Stupak, N., Frazee, M., Brougher, S., Schwab, N., & McKinlay, M. (2008). Dynamic social impact mechanisms in rumor propagation. Poster presented at the Group Processes and Intergroup Relations Meeting, and the Cultural Psychology Meeting, at the 2008 Annual Conference of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, February 7, Albuquerque, NM.

Bordia, P., Irmer, B., DiFonzo, N., Gallois, C. (2004, January). The role of causal attribution judgments in rumor denial processing: Mud sticks! Poster presented at the 5th annual meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychologists.

Bordia P., Jones, E., Gallois, C., Callan, V., & DiFonzo, N. (2003, June). Management are aliens! Rumours during organisational change. Presented at the 5th Australian Industrial & Organisational Psychology Conference, Melbourne.

Bordia, P., Irmer, B., DiFonzo, N., & Gallois, C. (2003, April). Attributional analysis of rumour denials. Presented at the 32nd annual meeting of the Society of Australasian Social Psychologists, Sydney, Australia.

DiFonzo, N. & Bordia, P. (2003, March). Rumors in organizational settings tend to be accurate. Poster presented at the 74th Annual Meeting of the Eastern Psychological Society, Baltimore, MD.

Salim, S. Z. & DiFonzo, N. (2003, March). “I heard that…”: Rumor content. Poster presented at the 74th Annual Meeting of the Eastern Psychological Society, Baltimore, MD.

DiFonzo, N., Bordia, P., & Winterkorn, R. (2003, January). Distrust is a key ingredient in rumor transmission. In N. DiFonzo (chair), Rumor & Gossip: Recent Directions in Theory & Research. Symposium presented at the 4th Annual Meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychologists, Los Angeles, CA.

DiFonzo, N. (2003, January), Rumor & Gossip: Recent Directions in Theory & Research. Chaired symposium presented at the 4th Annual Meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychologists, Los Angeles, CA.

DiFonzo, N., & Bordia, P. (2002, January). Causal attribution in rumors. Poster Presented at the 3rd Annual Meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychologists, Savannah, GA.

Bordia, P., Hunt, E., Paulsen, N., Tourish, D., & DiFonzo, N. (2001, May). Uncertainty During Organizational Change: It is All About Control. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the International Communication Association, Washington, DC.

DiFonzo, N. (2001, April). Stereotyping and Equal Employment Opportunity. Paper presented at the 7th Annual Conference on Racism, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY.

Bordia, P., DiFonzo, N., & Schultz. C. (1999, June). Denying rumours of organisational closure: Honest sources are the most effective. Presented at the 3rd Australian Industrial and Organizational Psychology Conference, Brisbane, Australia.

Bordia, P., Wheelan, S., DiFonzo, N. (1998). Developmental patterns in informal computer mediated groups. Presented at the 1998 conference of the Society for Australasian Social Psychology, Christchurch, New Zealand.

DiFonzo, N., Hantula, D. A., & Bordia, P. (1997, November). Microworlds for human experimental research: Realism, control and accuracy. Paper presented at the 27th Annual Conference for the Society for Computers in Psychology, Philadelphia, PA.

DiFonzo, N. (1997, April). Why I studied rumor-based stock market trading using computer simulation: Advantages and experimental and mundane realism. In S. Goltz (Chair), Using computer simulations in experiments: Realism and other issues. Symposium conducted at the 12th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychologists, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Bordia, P., Travers, V., & DiFonzo, N. (1997). Combatting rumours of organizational change: A higher source in not always better. Presented at the 2nd Australian Industrial/Organizational Psychology Conference, Melbourne.

DiFonzo, N., Rohrer, A., Barry, B., & Grebinger, P. (1996). Your 10 most positive experiences: A motivational assessment. Paper presented at the 67th annual meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association Annual Meeting, Philadelphia, PA.

DiFonzo, N., & Hantula, D. A. (1995). Why some people escalate commitments to failing courses of action: Bayesian updating. Poster presented at the 7th Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Society, New York, NY.

DiFonzo, N. (1995). Piggy-backed syllogisms: How stock-market rumors are evaluated and acted upon by brokers. Paper presented at the 66th Annual Meeting of the Eastern Psychological Society, Boston, MA.

DiFonzo, N. (1994). The fundamental attribution error in persistence studies. Poster presented to the 6th Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Society, Washington, DC.

DiFonzo, N., Bordia, P., & Rosnow, R. L. (1994). Rumor theory in practice: A qualitative inquiry. Paper presented at the 65th Annual Meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association, Providence, RI.

DiFonzo, N. (1994). When do rumors warrant belief? Poster presented at the 65th Annual Meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association, Providence, RI.

DiFonzo, N. (1993). Rumor and behavior: Anti-regressive effects of rumors on individual trading patterns in the stock market. Paper presented at the 64th Annual Meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association, Washington, DC.

Ph.D. Dissertation
DiFonzo, N. (1994). Piggy-backed syllogisms for investor behavior: Probabilistic mental modeling in rumor-based stock market trading. Unpublished Doctoral Thesis, Temple University.

M.A. Thesis
DiFonzo, N. (1992). Rumor and behavior: Effects of rumors on individual trading patterns in the stock market. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Temple University.